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The enemy of The Centre’s creatures



When Mark Russel bought a cat trap, he didn’t expect to have such quick success: Since he deployed it late last year, the Braitling resident has caught eight feral cats.

Mala face extinction from cats.

“I was surprised you could get eight in one spot over a relatively small amount of time. It does make you concerned,” he says.

Rural resident Trevor Shiell has trapped 23 cats on his property alone in the past 12 months.

In and around Alice Springs, invasive species run rampant, and Mr Russell is part of a passionate sector of the community who are trying to make a difference. He has cleared his yard and some surrounding bush of buffel grass, as well as joined the fight against the turtle-dove pigeon, but if there is one thing that has truly made a difference in how much wildlife he sees in his yard, it’s catching cats.

“If you like wildlife, it’s noticeable, the amount of birds and stuff that come … there’s more birds than usual.”

He says it’s a pretty simple proposition: “If you want to conserve native wildlife, catch cats.”

Animals like the mala and burrowing bettong are at the point where their populations essentially cannot exist with the presence of cats in the environment.

Also under threat are the lives of more commonly seen wildlife like skinks, and birdlife like the Australian ringneck parrot.

Cats are killers at heart, taking the lives of an estimated 1.7 billion native animals across the country annually.

Cats who live in the arid interior, away from regular sources of water, have adapted so that they get all the fluids they need from their prey, going months without drinking water.

What’s left of a cat’s dinner. Photo MIKE GILLAM.

In research published recently examining why the Western-central Arid Zone ecosystem is in a state of collapse, cats and other invasive predators were named on the list of factors. The local wing of Land for Wildlife says that there are 12 animals in Central Australia that are at risk of extinction by cats.

Further, cats which are not kept indoors and are allowed to roam, or are feral, can be a risk to human health. Professor Sarah Legge, of the University of Queensland, says cats may carry the parasite Toxoplasma gondii.

When entering the human body it “can cause miscarriages, birth defect in babies, and is linked to long-term mental health issues like depression and schizophrenia.

“Cats infected with Toxoplasma gondii shed millions of the tiny parasites into the environment where they can be eaten by other animals.

“We would expect rates of Toxoplasma gondii infection to be low in Central Australia as the hot and dry conditions make it hard for the parasite to survive for extended periods in the environment.

“However, around towns like Alice Springs with high cat densities and cooler microclimates toxoplasma gondii is likely to occur in some free-roaming cats.”

Who is responsible for what in the control of cats in the Northern Territory is a bit of a mess, and once you get out of town, the answer seems to be whoever will try.

Senior Director Species Management for the Department of Environment, Parks and Water Security, Glenn Edwards, says: “Councils have a responsibility to manage pets which they do using by-laws. Away from urban areas, individual land owners and managers are responsible for managing feral animals. However, they are not obliged to manage the impacts of feral cats.”

Trevor Shiell with a cat trap.

Land for Wildlife has traps available to buy in Alice Springs and they also loan them out to members. As well, 42 traps are available to be loaned out by the Alice Springs Town Council, 16 of which are currently on loan and being used.

Previously Land for Wildlife had been conducting a range of studies on the activities of domestic and feral cats, but had to cease these activities when their funding, most of which came from the Territory government, ran out in 2019. Since then, coordinator Kate Stevens says there has been an “ongoing difficulty of finding funding”.

Bill Low, who houses the Land for Wildlife operation in the home office of his ecology business and has watched the cat populations of Central Australia ebb and flow, says “there is a cone of population.

“The peak of the cone is in town here, and as you go out away from town, then it disperses out.”

Aside from the native animals, in many ways Tammy Hargrave, the manager of the Alice Springs Animal Shelter, bears the brunt of being at the peak of the cone. For cats who enter the shelter, the only such facility for 1500 kilometres, Ms Hargrave is the giver and taker of life.

For those who have given up on caring for their cat, let it roam and become feral, before ending up in a trap, lured by the smell of canned fish, this responsibility lies heavily on Ms Hargrave’s shoulders.

“You know, we don’t get out of bed excited to have a euthanasia day, it’s horrendous, like we push it out sometimes as long as we can because we just don’t want to deal [with it],” she says.

Tammy Hargrave: Life and death decisions.

“I’d love to not euthanise, but I have to wear that hat because if it’s not me it’s gonna be someone else.”

In the winter, when the kitten season slows, Ms Hargrave says that she has a better chance of finding homes for cats, but in the summer, it’s different entirely.

“You can’t keep up, there’s days where we might euthanise six cats and then a litter of mum and eight kittens will come in. So you’re just never ever really in front. Ever.”

Is this animal adoptable? Is it more adoptable than the litter of kittens that another cat in the shelter is about to birth? Do we have time, space and money to care for it if after a few months we will eventually put it down? These are the types of questions that Ms Hargrave must weigh.

Speaking of one cat currently at the shelter, a young, spry animal with soft black hide, big green eyes and an even bigger belly, Ms Hargrave says she hopes she has only three kittens: “We can deal with three. If she has four or five, two will have to go.”

Ms Hargrave thinks it is easy for people to comment on “kill shelters” and take the moral high ground, but there is no other alternative: “It’s cruel, a cage is not a life long term,” she says.

The Alice Springs shelter sees between 400 and 500 cats come through its doors annually, with an adoption rate of around 40%. This might sound pretty abysmal, to be putting down hundreds of cats yearly, but when compared to adoption rates in capital cities, 40% starts to sound a lot better.

That cat with the swollen belly ended up having five kittens: Ms Hargrave says all are being kept for now.

“The problem is before us,” says Ms Hargrave. Cats not neutered roaming the streets, feral or domestic, will breed as instinctually as they kill. When a cat is adopted from the animal shelter, it comes desexed, but cats from other sources may not be, and in town and the surrounding town camps, cat populations can easily swell.

Backpack: Where cats should be in the out-of-doors.

Around Australia in urban areas, the issue of feral and unowned cats has often been left in the hands of the passionate few.

This system relies so heavily on individuals to bait and catch an extremely elastic cat population. Additionally, there is the assumption that cat owners will do the right thing, a concept that can seem far fetched and hopeful. However, there are people doing the right thing.

Ian Coleman and Kylie Logan, along with their daughter Poppy, keep their cat Wendy on a tight leash — literally.

Whenever Wendy is outside, she’s on a leash or in her backpack, which the family often uses for taking her on bike rides. In the yard, Wendy is free to roam the radius of her lead and whatever it is tied to.

“She doesn’t know any different,” says Ms Logan of Wendy’s indoor life.

Research shows that cats live longer, happier lives inside and that cats who have once been outdoor animals can adapt to indoor life provided they are kept entertained.

While these facts can be quite easily accessed online, it seems this is not always translating to a change in cat owner behaviour. Ms Logan often sees cats from around the neighbourhood, cats whose owners are generally thoughtful and informed people.

“I don’t know if they just don’t know better,” says Ms Logan, a little exasperated.

Kate Stevens.

Trevor Shiell once trapped a feral cat on his block in Connellan that was nearly a meter “from the tip of its nose to the tip of its tail.” 

He hopes to see someone look into how cat pheromones – attracting sexual partners –could be used to draw cats to a location and skip the laborious step of setting traps, but he doesn’t hold out much hope.

“I don’t think people look at it from a scientific point of view.”

They do in remote and sanctuary settings, but trapping cats near human populations is obviously not effective. Education on the damage caused by cats – every cat that is let outside – struggles to get through.

Trevor says that the problems cats cause, not only in Central Australia, but all over the nation “won’t get solved unless the Federal government comes up with a scientifically practical point of view.

“Unless there is a commercial imperative or a voting imperative, it’s not going to happen.”

There have been statements of intent from the Federal government. In 2015 it promised to cull two million cats nationwide by 2020. Media attention that followed included a lengthy piece in the New York Times.

Despite the attention grabbing number floated, which in itself is hard to track, it appears the government never quite achieved their goal, and is instead running it back.

In early February this year an inquiry by the Federal Government found its approach needs to be torn up. A raft of recommendations were put forward, a majority of which could have resulted simply from a quick google search.

Mark Russell with a turtle-dove pigeon cage next to a cat trap.

One is establishing more fenced feral free sanctuaries around the country through a scheme they’ve called Project Noah. Currently, Australia Wildlife Conservancy (AWC) is the main operator of such sanctuaries, with 28 properties nationwide, however few are fenced due to size and rough terrain.

The AWC sanctuary at Newhaven, 350 kilometres northwest of Alice Springs, is proof that it can be done in an arid environment.

The sanctuary is home to 29 species of mammals, 175 species of birds and 84 species of reptile, as well as six species of amphibians. Josef Schofield, a regional operations manager for AWC who previously ran the operation at Newhaven, says fencing comes at a high cost and Federal funding for such projects could make a huge difference.

“It costs anywhere between $35,000 and $50,000 per kilometre,” Mr Schofield says.

Most of the money in the AWC purse comes from philanthropists and donations, but if the government were to fund the construction and some ongoing costs of fenced sanctuaries, a lot more could be done.

Right now, the Newhaven cat and fox free zone is 10,000 hectares, which equates to 44 kilometres of fencing and earned the title of the second longest cat-proof fence in the world. 

“We’re talking about scaling that up to potentially 100,000 hectares over the next five years or so.”

For that to be achieved, Mr Schofield says: “You’re looking at nearly 150 kilometres of fence. So straightaway, if you go on the upper end of that figure, 150 times 50,000, is $7.5m —  just for the fence. And then you’ve got the ongoing management.”

And that’s just for one sanctuary, one that’s already partially fenced.

On the leash.

Some of the money for the construction of the Newhaven fence came from the Federal government, so there is a precedent.

Like every complex problem, fenced sanctuaries cannot be the only answer.

Recently, aerial drops of cat specific bait have been carried out throughout the West MacDonnell National Park (Tjoritja) by the NT and Federal governments to aid the survival of the Central Rock Rat, but it is too early to know any results.

Around Alice Springs, Mr Low and Mr Shiell agree that an opportunity to get on top of the numbers was probably lost when the cat population seemed to be coming into town during the drought. Now that the rain has come, “they’ve likely scattered,” says Mr Shiell.

Whatever the case, the passionate minority will no doubt continue baiting their traps and hope that help is on the way. 

Last updated 5 March 2021, 4.38pm.


  1. My family recently adopted a kitten from the shelter. Three months in and it has cost over $500 for rego, desexing, and needles. Way more than it should be.
    Lucky she is a wonderful animal.

  2. Cats are very territorial. I had a plague of them until I got my own cat.
    Now my desexed cat chases the others off.
    This is also the principle behind catch / neuter and release programs.
    Research has shown this actually lowers feral cat numbers in the long term.
    We should run this program here.

  3. @ Watchn: That’s double compared with interstate. Best cat rescue in Victoria is $200 for girl neuter and needles and microchip $150 for a male.
    But vet costs could be high here?
    Desexing is a key to cat control and must be affordable.

  4. I find this an interesting read. Cats do kill so keep them in.
    I firmly believe all domestic cats should be desexed.
    However I disagree with a few opinions here. $500 is not too much for desexing, vaccinations and registration.
    There is no medicare for animals and veterinarians need to pay for anaesthesia which is very expensive, medications and the routine costs of keeping a business afloat, wages, super, electricity, medication etc.

  5. @ Alex: While your situation sounds interesting, broadly it has been proven that cats are not territorial and will exist in groups called clowders rather than than colonies, which insinuates they are closed off groups.
    While TNR concepts have been deployed in parts of Australia that I have heard of (the most interesting being the work of Jenny Cottrell in Banyule on Melbourne’s northwest rim), most litters are the product of multiple males. To effectively lower the population 90% of the population would have to be neutered, a near impossible task.
    If any one is interested in the topic, this piece from right after the two million kill PR stunt came out is a good read and still relevant.
    Julius Dennis, Alice Springs News journalist.

  6. I’m so glad to hear about these conscientious people working to remove free-roaming cats from the environment.
    This is great! I’m also thankful to Ms Hargrave who understands the necessity and importance of the work she is doing. Keep up the good work.
    As to the person who suggested trap-neuter-return (TNR). No. It does not work.

  7. @ Rebecca Curr. So cost of a female shelter cat can be $500 and $200 interstate.
    Many families can’t afford that so they get a free to good home kitten.
    They do not desex so soon their cat as young as four months is producing kittens.
    These destroy wildlife and some end up at the shelter.
    The shelter is a wonderful community organisation that many of us support.
    They are clearly upset by some of the work they have to do and I note a regular turnover of staff.
    We give money and food to help them cope with the periodic kitten tsunamis.
    The driver of this ongoing train wreck is the high vet costs.
    There are three vets so should be competitive.
    How about a tender for all vet work with a price list?
    Cheapest gets all vet work for a year.
    How about the Town Council subsidises vet work as an environmental measure?

  8. Australian wildlife would benefit enormously if domestic ownership of cats as pets was phased out.

  9. A home without a cat is not a home.
    Please read the wonderful story of R Kipling in the Just So Stories “The Cat that Walked by Himself”.
    A cat, when desexed and vaccinated, makes a faithful pet and friend, and being territorial chases other cats away. Home cats are not feral cats. But they still roam and investigate their surroundings. All ferals, whether cats, camels, horses, pigeons, crows, anything “ëxotic” (threatening indigenous species and compromising previously established ecosystem functions) has been ïntroduced – by whom? By the first settlers who have taken over land and lifestyle.
    So logically by extrapolation, all settlers (today some 97% of Australian population) ought to be “caged and euthanised” to keep this land we call home as pure and authentic as it has been for the previous many thousands of years. Surely not a valid suggestion.
    PS to Michael Smith above: Your solution reminds me with terror of Hitler’s final solution … sorry!

  10. We adopted a cat from the RSPCA at Blatherskite Park in 2009 and have kept her inside ever since (now back in the US).
    She still gets to investigate and supervise the entire house, it keeps her busy enough that she has no need to go outside.
    In addition to protecting possible prey, keeping cats indoors protects them from disease and predators.
    It’s a myth that cats cannot be happy if kept inside.

  11. Maya, you are 99.5% correct but you forget to mention all the diseases the settlers brought with them.
    Cats around the world: I still remember Turkey and the cats. Everywhere I asked why so may cats are free to roam Istanbul and I was told Turkey is not unique among predominately Muslim countries for honouring its cats, which are considered ritually clean animals in Islam.
    In the hadith, the collected sayings and actions of Muhammad, there are numerous examples of the Prophet’s fondness for cats.
    By one account, Muhammad cut off his sleeve when he had to rise for prayers so as to not disturb a feline that had curled up on his robe for a nap.
    In another tale, the pet cat of Abu Hurayrah (literally “father of the kitten”) saved Muhammad from an attack by a deadly serpent. Muhammad purportedly blessed the cat in gratitude, giving cats the ability to always land on their feet.
    Cats were considered guardians in other respects for the Islamic world: they defended libraries from destruction by mice and may have helped protect city populations from rat-borne plagues.
    And my good friend Guven added: “Without cats the mice will have destroyed longtime ago the old books you are reading now.”
    Egypt: Egyptians believed cats were magical creatures, capable of bringing good luck to the people who housed them.
    To honor these treasured pets, wealthy families dressed them in jewels and fed them treats fit for royalty.
    When the cats died, they were mummified. As a sign of mourning, the cat owners shaved off their eyebrows, and continued to mourn until their eyebrows grew back.
    Art from ancient Egypt shows statues and paintings of every type of feline. Cats were so special that those who killed them, even by accident, were sentenced to death.
    Greece: No matter where you are in Greece, it seems that you’ll always see cats. They could be roaming the streets, sleeping under a bench, visiting you at your villa or guest house, or stopping by while you’re dining outdoors at a restaurants.
    France: With 13.5 million domesticated cats (compared to seven million dogs), France has the highest number of cats in Europe.
    I grew up with cats, been the daughter of an initiated leopard man who told us to respect nature and especially felines.
    I always had some but now I do not have any. If I did, maybe I would not have the mice which are destroying my garden.
    I witnessed how they can be kind with other animals including birds.

  12. Pseudo Guru how much wildlife do we destroy when we cut trees, built bitumen roads etc?
    Fair is fair, stop blaming cats for destruction of nature.

  13. Hundreds of dollars for a vet? I euthanise for around 10 cents a shot and they grow very sweet oranges.
    At a friend’s house a few years ago with his “pet” house cat, I got sick and very angry at cleaning up the piles of parrot feathers each morning for several days.
    I changed the food each day, but the piles of feathers went on.
    RIP Felix.
    I converted the animal into vegetables and together with the King of Qongdongs over the road we appear to now be cat free and vege rich.
    My friend down south made a fortune from fox skins by shooting a vixen in season and dragging it behind his ute for a few Km then putting out bait.
    He made enough money to build a unit in Queensland.
    Then the animal lovers in Europe stepped in and the skin price went down.
    They unwittingly condemned millions of our native animals to a terrible death. QED.
    Surely listening to the howling dingos in season should suggest something about aggregating feral animals of all kinds, not just cats and foxes, for control purposes?
    My backside was sore for months thanks to a marauding billy goat seeking to satisfy his lust. Use their sexual drive!


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