Closing the Gap: Lofty words, inadequate deeds


p2310-campdweller-2By ERWIN CHLANDA
The controversial tender for “Provision of Tenancy Management Services” to town camps is now water under the bridge, but today’s national focus on Closing the Gap (or not) has prompted the Central Land Council to say that big improvements in Aboriginal housing will be needed for things to change.
As if to underscore this, the majority of tenants in Santa Teresa are taking unprecedented legal action against the NT government over long delays in urgent housing repairs.
The town camps tenancy tender recently awarded is a good example of the bureaucratic inefficiencies in the system as well as the hollow rhetoric of the debate.
The work was taken from an Indigenous company, Central Australian Affordable Housing Company (CAAHC), and given to a non-Indigenous one, Zodiac.
Aboriginal and other non-government organisations soon pumped out media releases objecting vociferously. Their message: Anything that’s Indigenous must have an Indigenous NGO looking after it.
But not much was heard from the tenants themselves about their experience of  the maintenance regime for their houses. Alice Springs News Online called in on two camps.
Marcia Sampson (below, left) in the Old Timers Camp said half her power fuse box hasn’t been working for a year.
Dennis Brown (top, right) next-door hasn’t had a properly functioning airconditioner for a year, has been unable to get his fence repaired so he can keep out unwanted visitors, and the grass is waste-high, potentially concealing snakes coming down from the nearby hill.
CAAHC was complaining bitterly about losing the contract to a non-Indigenous company, with co-ordinated media statements from friendly groups:
The Central Land Council said it had “received nothing but poor feedback about Zodiac Business Services from remote community tenants, with complaints ranging from Zodiac staff being rude to tenants, entering their houses without knocking to failing to attend to even the most basic repair and maintenance issues”.
p2310-campdweller-3The Central Australian Aboriginal Congress said it “continues to support the need for services that are provided to Aboriginal people being delivered by Aboriginal community controlled organisations and this includes the vitally important community housing sector”.
NT Shelter said CAAHC should have been given the contract again because “the benefits of supporting residents to thrive by having housing management provided by a well-credentialed Aboriginal community housing organisation … cannot be underestimated. These benefits are both social and financial, impacting positively on the public purse.”
But what is happening on the ground, with Housing Minister Bess Price in charge, is the stuff of comedy.
Territory Housing, which is non-Indigenous, looks after Indigenous people living in public housing in non-Indigenous suburbs.
Indigenous people living in Indigenous town camps, by contrast, will report a defect (around 2200 a year, an average of eight per house) to Non-Indigenous Zodiac which in turn will pass it on to the new holder of the Property Management Contract, the Indigenous Tangentyere Construction.
They will send out a Housing Maintenance Officer who will assess the job – say, a leaking tap. They will judge if a tradesman is needed. If not, they will fix the problem.
If the job does need a tradesman they will advise non-Indigenous Territory Housing who will then assign one of its five panel contractors, all believed to be non-Indigenous.
It is hard to fathom why non-Indigenous Territory Housing cannot also look after Indigenous people in Indigenous public housing located in Indigenous town camps.
Or why the tenants can’t contact the department or Territory Housing direct.
Why is it necessary to interpolate an organisation costing the taxpayer more than half a million dollars a year between the complaining tenant and the authority which arranges the repair?
We wanted to ask Ms Price, who is Indigenous, but she wouldn’t agree to an interview. She approved the Zodiac contract worth $700,000 over 16 months.
The tender prepared by Ms Price’s department says it “aims to maintain the quality and lifecycle of the houses under its management, whilst increasing the opportunities for employment and training for local residents”.
That – with a little imagination – could be interpreted as meaning: “Let’s give Mr Brown a whipper-snipper for a day so he can mow the grass.”
We would have liked to put that to Ms Price but … well, see above.
CAAHC won’t say how much they tendered but it makes the point that while Ms Price awarded the work on price (no pun intended), that was only meant to be a minor consideration.
The process is supposed to apply “Percentage Weightings & Assessment Criteria” which apportions, expressed in percentages, the importance that must be attributed to the various considerations.
In this case it was a mere 10% for price, and 25% for capacity, 20% each for local development & value adding and scope specific criteria, 15% for past performance and another 10% for timeliness.
This is for a task that may consist of, on the face of it, little more than sending an email to Tangentyere Construction saying: “Mr Brown needs to have his lawn mowed.”
p2310-campdweller-1CAAHC’s John McBryde says Territory Housing “ignored” the weighting requirements and the decision was made 100% on price.
There was discontent not only at the Old Timers camp, but also at Abbott’s Camp.
Doris Abbott described the “past performance” of CAAHC as “real slack”: Broken fences, painting needing to be done, a broken stove, and two houses empty because of repairs not done for what she considered an unacceptably long time.
Of course it must be born in mind that any glitches may have occurred down the line from CAAHC which was the frontline contact.
“Territory Housing were responsible for all repairs and maintenance and vacant houses,” says CAAHC.
Mrs Abbott’s neighbour, Corinna Napangardi (at right), says broken windows and a malfunctioning airconditioner are interfering with getting her kids off to school on time and homework when they come back.
Meanwhile CAAHC had to sack staff but continues to look after 13 dwellings it owns in Bloomfield Street, bought with a $4.3m Aboriginal Benefit Account grant.
These dwellings are let out to working Aboriginal people on a subsidised rent, no-profit basis.
Zodiac is now providing services to 270 town camp dwellings: 15 in Morris Soak, 16 Charles Creek, 4 Kunoth, 15 Anthepe, 7 Palmers, 47 Hidden Valley, 14 Hoppy’s, 9 Warlpiri, 22 Little Sisters, 2 Basso’s Farm, 19 Karnte, 34 Larapinta, 11 Mount Nancy, 6 Abbott’s, 13 New Ilparpa, 26 Trucking Yards, and 10 Old Timers.


  1. Decisions being made by parties that hold 5% of the knowledge. When will politicians start listening to the people!?

  2. The maintenance of housing is land-owners’ responsibility.
    Land-owners may employ or contract others to undertake the work, however this does not fully remove liability.
    Where tenants have leases most repairs are arranged by the property agent, sometimes this includes the lawn-mowing, this is what is set out in the terms of the leases.
    Agreements to pay money every fortnight are not tenancy leases, just payment agreements.
    What do the current lease agreements for housing look like?
    Ownership and administration of the lands and buildings passed to Santa Teresa Land Trust in 1977.
    The Commonwealth appointed the Central Land Council as the responsible realty agents.
    Since 1977 housing difficulties were issues for corporate land-owner “Santa Teresa Land Trust” and their agent, the Central Land Council.
    Who contracted for Commonwealth, NT Government or someone else to manage Santa Teresa Land Trust private property and buildings?
    Santa Teresa Land Trust or CLC?
    CLC director David Ross recently claimed recent decisions to change management contracts reflected an NT housing system which was failing people who need it most.
    Has CLC director David Ross or Santa Teresa Land Trust advised how many leases were issued for purpose of privately owned businesses or homes?
    For decades CLC as property agent for the Santa Teresa Land Trust in effect refused to issue leases, even to “Traditional Owners,” the intended beneficiaries of the Land Trusts.
    CLC then long failed to fully and properly assist their corporate Land Trust clients, and the intended beneficiaries.
    Perhaps the Trustees of these corporate Land Trusts failed to properly assist their intended beneficiaries.
    Failing to maintain housing.
    Failing to issue valid tenancy leases.
    Failing to collect rentals at reasonable rates to fully and properly maintain buildings.
    CLC as property agent thus obstructed actions to supply adequate housing for community populations.
    With Public Funds provided for housing constructions in the communities, questions arise of whether public funding was inappropriately provided, whether it failed to meet standards for accountability and maintenance of assets acquired using public monies.
    CLC as appointed property agent for the corporate Land Trusts, may have failed or ignored its responsibility to maintain standards for housing and buildings.
    Normal land-owners and land-lords rarely escape being held accountable when such failings or inappropriate property management is found.
    Yet here such failing has long been ongoing.
    CLC recently claimed it was a member of CAAHC which previously managed the housing maintenance.
    Does this create potential for conflict of interest?
    Does this create potential for financial gain by the CLC, and or, management Trustees of the Santa Teresa Land Trust?

  3. I cannot see what they are complaining about. I understand the maintenance of the houses, but looking at the photograph of Denis Brown, why can’t he pick up the rubbish and mow the grass himself?
    Any person who rents a home, black or white, is required to keep the houses neat and tidy, so what’s the issue.
    As for Closing the Gap, I would like to have the same benefits.
    These people cannot expect to have nice houses and better things in life if they do not help themselves.
    They need to stop hiding behind culture when they are too lazy to work.
    There are more opportunities for work out there for the indigenous than any other person. Need to learn to move on.
    Start looking after the material possessions they receive, such as housing.

  4. I suggest the following:-
    1 fix all the houses = cost $100 million?
    2 pass legislation to privatise and give all camp housing away to tenants with no further responsibility to repair / replace.
    3 new owners allowed to sell them.
    4 stop funding all agencies associated with camp housing, apart from the Town Council, if the Feds want to keep funding them all well and good. Savings = $30 million PA?
    Long term savings over 10 years = $300 million?

  5. @ Fred: I understand your point, you have no problem with countrymen providing they are coconuts.
    Can you please send me a photo of yourself so I can work out what you are allowed to plant in your garden this year, who you are allowed to associate with, what funerals you are allowed to go to and what jobs your family can have?
    I agree totally with the “need to learn to move on” bit. You certainly do, Fred.

  6. @ Fred: Even though I believe you’re stirring the possum, allow me to add a little ‘roo to the stew.
    You ask what’s the issue?
    Try living in a country that used to belong to your great-grandparents and having to share it with the attitudes you profess.
    If it was as simple as you make out, the “Gap” wouldn’t need closing.
    You prefer to see outward issues, like housing, while telling us to move on.
    How about you change for a change?
    If you don’t like our culture (at least we’ve got one, although much is downtrodden), then try an education.

  7. The government is taking a community issue and turning it into a political one.
    Back when Tangentyere was controlling the town camps it looked and felt like a war zone.

  8. I am sick of this Bull-S! We offer everything on a platter and they don’t look after this.
    Times change, they have to respect what they get for basically free. I have a house an pay for it as well.
    I have to pay for repairs which need to be fixed.
    If they don’t look after it then kick them out.
    I am sick of my tax money going towards people who don’t appreciate what’s given to them.
    There are people who are homeless out there and they get nothing and why? Because they are white.
    I once respected Aborigines before I came to the Alice but now I have become a racist after seeing what they do and are. Not everyone is like that but you could say that it is the majority.

  9. @ Interested: You certainly can’t be blamed for your views and I am sure they are shared by many, many people.
    Yes, “they” trash “their” houses. Yes, most of them don’t have real jobs. Yes, many of the children are undisciplined or out of control.
    You have a house and are paying for it. That’s the great Australian dream. Unless you are unfortunate enough to be in the clutches of Territory Housing, you got to choose what sort of house you live in and where it is. For the most part, you probably got to chose your neighbours.
    For the most part, “they” don’t have that option. There is no input into the system. Most of the houses in the camps and communities are built by Hilux-driving mob from somewhere else. There is no local buy-in and in the vast majority of cases, no work for the locals on those houses.
    If something needs fixing, someone else comes and does it for them.
    Every time the wind changes and we have a new Indigenous Affairs Minister, the goalposts move. Currently, the rules are you must do an “activity” if you don’t have a real job. For all the spin and rhetoric, it is hard to see how it is about genuine, long term job creation.
    Nobody in that world talks about careers, holidays, long service leave of superannuation. The next minister may have them all weaving baskets or doing dot murals on fences. Who knows.
    Everybody talks about school attendance when enrollments are a bigger problem. If they do go to school, they don’t have to learn or achieve anything. The important thing is not learning to read and write because you won’t need to.
    As for those children, they may not go to school because none of their family did, either. They still get a house and a car when the royalty caravan arrives. They have more family in jail than have ever had a real job. They see police all the time and are exposed to horrendous levels of violence and drunkenness from the time they are babies. Going to jail is a family holiday.
    All the messages that target them deliver the same message – you are going to die young so don’t try. They are constantly told they will die much younger than the white fellas, that they have the highest levels of just about every disease known to mankind than anyone else on the planet.
    It’s called sense of entitlement and it is the toxic by-product of passive welfare. The largest single industry in the Territory in terms of employee numbers is misery.
    The real position is that for all the harsh words and rhetoric, no government will shut down that industry because it employs too many bureaucrats and it would be really difficult to find real jobs for them. In the real world of private enterprise, most of them are unemployable.
    Walk a mile in the shoes of the camp dwellers and I think you wouldn’t give the southern end of a northbound rat, either.
    I don’t condone any of it, from any side of the fence. It must change, not the least of which because the workers among us are now paying too much of our wages to too many for too little.
    It is unsustainable fiscally but worse, it is killing people. That simply makes it all just plain wrong.
    I fully understand the way you feel. I also think you probably believe you can’t change of it anyway and sadly, you are probably right.
    But rather than just saying poor bugger my country, we can ask questions. In Ms Hanson’s words, it’s okay to ask a politician or a bureaucrat to please explain if they are seeking our endorsement to get their snouts in the trough.

  10. @ Russell: Don’t you find it funny that events that happened 200 years ago are being used as an excuse for bad behaviour.
    We were assured that land rights would “fix” the relationship between indigenous and so called non-indigenous – didn’t happen.
    Then we were told, say Sorry – that will “fix” the relationship – nope, in my view it has gotten worse.
    Now we are being told a change to the constitution will fix things – can’t see it myself.
    I don’t ask anyone to change – I respect your “culture” but how about you respect mine?
    When you talk about “closing the gap” – it is costing the Australian taxpayer an awful lot of money to keep people in the poverty to which they have grown accustomed.
    Personal responsibility is a wonderful thing – I could have sat on my clacker too, not gone to school and followed the example set by generations prior to me. Parents at some stage need to take responsibility for the damage that they are doing to their children.

  11. Who do you give the house to Justin? I occasionally visit a friend on a town camp, he lives in a two bedroom house with 20 or more family members.
    Often there are other family camping over the fence just using the facilities, they have nowhere else to go.
    You’re not allowed to camp in the river anymore. Imagine how hard it is to keep a house designed for a nuclear family in good order when it is under this much pressure.
    And interested you say they have to respect what they get for free. How much did we pay for the land to the original owners? We had no respect for them and just stole it. Not saying your’e guilty for what happened in the past but we are reaping the benefits of that criminal act.

  12. @ Another Observer: No, I don’t find it funny. I find the fact that people drink to levels of personal harm very unfunny. You cite “personal responsibility” as if there’s no connect to what happened “200 years ago”. I’m encouraged by the fact that some people do.

  13. Pete your comment is very sensible but unfortunately my view will not change and some times regret that I came to Alice as my views before then on Aborigines was “I can’t wait to work with them”. That is the thing that’s going to happen.
    Mmmmm its people like you who make the situation and standard never change.
    The past is past it’s sad but everything has been done to smooth things out.
    In your views, when is the past not going to be an excuse? Move on or this will never change and other people and programs are left without funding because we give it to people who don’t appreciate it.

  14. @ Russell: A country that belonged to your great grandfather? May have skipped a generation or two don’t you think. Stolen, really? Remember Cook only beat the French to it by a matter of days, the Dutch also knew about it. Was it really going to be left as it was forever. It was an age of empire expansion.
    The definition of Terra Nulius was only really defined in the Mabo case, not that long ago in history really. The concept of it was different in those days, as it related to the presence of a system of government.
    The Mabo case redefined that, at that decision is now a precedent, much like the UN redefining racism.
    It used be be a simple case of treating those of another race less favourably. In the past you could be equally liable for calling me a white prick as I could for calling you a black bastard.
    But the UN states that by law, a person from a minority applying racist behaviour towards a member of the majority no longer qualifies as being racist.
    We have identified positions, sporting opportunities etc only offered to Indigenous.
    A friend with a severe toothache told me could not seek help from Congress because he was not Indigineous.
    So we are making amends, and I like many others have no real dramas with those programs because they help those less fortunate. There does need to come a point though, that effort must come from both sides.
    How many ESO’s have been trained under the indigenous pre employment program? Where are the Indigenous leaders and entrepreneurs who will pay the kids pocket money to mow the lawns of houses like those shown and give people pride where they live?
    Teach the kids that work equals reward in the country this has become.
    Closing the gap means realising that we are now at a point where opportunities exist for all, and those who have it tough have extra opportunities. When we replace the windows, don’t smash them, when we build you a house, look after it.
    Yep this land certainly was taken, nothing can change that and we can’t go back in time, we need to encourage people to move forward, whilst not forgetting the past. We all did some stupid shit when we were younger, be we learnt from that and moved on.

  15. The furore over the awarding of the town camp housing management contract to Zodiac, and the abusive defaming of that small locally owned business by NGOs, and the Land Council is disgraceful bullying behaviour.
    It was unfortunately made even worse by the ABC’s unquestioning backing of the NGO’s cause, unhesitatingly supporting the squeals of protest from CAAHA without taking the time to check the facts.
    Harassing Zodiac staff in their work place was unjustifiable and hurtful to Zodiac staff, shame on you ABC!
    Your own article Ed carries a defamatory statement from the Land Council, which CEO David Ross already apologised for when it was printed in the Advocate.
    Here are some facts for you:-
    First as I did in the Advocate, I declare an interest in as much as I have a son and daughter in law who work there.
    Zodiac is a small locally owned free enterprise business that specialises in tenancy management services.
    They are good at what they do!
    They are proud of what they do!
    Respectful customer service is their creed!
    They tendered for and won the town camp contract for $700,000, that price is believed to be nearly three and half times cheaper than that proffered by CAAHC!
    Zodiac is supremely confident that they can offer the required service for their price.
    CAAHC feels they are entitled to the contract, because we are told, it means indigenous jobs better communication! Yet in fact, Zodiac have an equivalent Indigenous employment ratio!
    Yes, they also employ Indigenous Centralians! At similar levels to the squealing NGOs!
    The truth is that the squeals of protest are coming from those used to milking the public purse, seeing it as their right, an entitlement, apparently not connected with the need to offer a service.
    Protestors standing on the steps of Parliament last week, all no doubt flown in at tax payers’ expense, are no poor down trodden town camp residents! These were highly payed executives! The gatekeepers of Aboriginal funding, their squeals of protest have nothing to do with the plight of town campers or lofty ideals of Indigenous employment.
    They are squealing at a perceived threat to their own pay packets!
    Further, somehow the maintenance issues at Santa Teresa have also been included in a general sling off at Zodiac, 6500 unattended maintenance issues being claimed as a reason that Zodiac should not be granted the contract!
    Zodiac doesn’t do maintenance!
    It provides a reporting service! Noting maintenance issues while inspecting houses and passing those items on to those responsible for their rectification!
    That just happens to be surprise surprise another NGO!
    Whose contract requires them to attend to maintenance issues under the value of $100 straight away while anything more costly needs to be approved by NT Housing?
    It is this relationship between Housing and the maintenance NGO where everything breaks down! Nothing whatsoever to do with Zodiac!
    In a week where “Closing the Gap” has been a topic of constant discussion we should take a long hard look at the terrible attitudes displayed by NGOs , a petulant belief in a right, an entitlement to administer funds intended for Aboriginal benefit regardless of any outcome!
    In questioning why the best effort of the nation to improve the lives of Indigenous Australians seems to be of no avail, look no further than these organisations.
    Breaking down their parasitic stranglehold is essential. If we are ever to close the Gap, we must reject the machinery of discrimination, of apartheid that allows completely unsatisfactory outcomes by making excuses on the basis of race!
    The letting of competitive contracts to free enterprise businesses under performance criteria will force efficiency and outcomes that to date we simply have not been able to achieve! The Zodiac contract is a great step forward for the community as a whole!

  16. @ Steve Brown: Thanks for your comment, Steve, pretty well how we described the situation.
    By the way, we rang Zodiac for a comment but didn’t hear back from them.
    Editor Erwin Chlanda

  17. @ Ray: The land was taken when pastoralists took up leases after Stuart’s final expedition. The SA Land Department facilitated this from 1870 onwards and that equates to the fourth generation removed.
    The colloquial “White Man’s Burden” aside, it’s irrelevant whether the French or the British or Dutch or the Japanese or anyone else took possession – the outcome for the Indigenous Australians was the same – massacre, loss of ownership, including heritage down through the generations which is where we are today.
    Mabo destroyed Terra Nullius in 1992 under Common Law, but freehold titles in existence remain.
    The present accommodation has nothing much to do with the UN.

  18. Cannot see what all the fuss is all about. Why aren’t the Indigenous councils doing more to help their people financially?
    Would it not be commonsense to spend royalty monies on improving their communities rather than buying cars?
    They have only got themselves to blame as it is called “taking responsibility and showing initiative”.
    There have been billions of dollars spent on the Indigenous and very little has been achieved as they are not willing to move on and have pride in themselves.

  19. Re: Fred the Philistine Posted February 17, 2016 at 7:37 pm.
    Structural changes are essential to encourage individuals to save and invest to improve things for themselves and their communities.
    Constant begging for public funding is not “taking responsibility and showing initiative”.
    Savings disadvantage, so government departments and other recipients spend money to maintain levels of funding.
    In order to take responsibility and show initiative, Government needs change its policy to require for public funding applicants making proportional contributions.
    e need a periodically review, proportional contributions required for communities or parts of communities for Public funding.
    Sections of the community may be determined as capable to receive $1.00 public for every $0.10 they raise, while others may be capable of $0.10 for every $1.00 they raise.
    On what circumstances need contribution rates be re-calculated?

  20. @ Russell Guy: I’m not contesting the fact of dispossession or its subsequent effects. Nor am I defending the overly complicated housing maintenance arrangements. But your over-reaction to a very trivial matter – Fred’s comment about Dennis Brown expecting the landlord to clean up his yard – got me wondering.
    Could you find the time to set out your thinking on the behaviours, attitudes, etc for which dispossession 150 years ago can be considered:
    1. A complete excuse (ie the individual is not at all responsible).
    2. A mitigating circumstance (the individual is partly responsible); and
    3. Not at all relevant (the individual is completely responsible).
    We know where you stand on Dennis Brown not keeping his yard clean, so where do you stand on more important matters like alcohol fuelled family and domestic violence, child neglect and other behaviours where indigenous people are over-represented?

  21. @ “Heckler”: Yet another pseudonym for fear of Big Brother? I think you’ve made a mistake. I haven’t made any comment about “Fred’s” post re housing maintenance. As for the rest of your post, for answers, please google the Alice Springs News Online archive under the subject headings you refer to.

  22. @ “Heckler”: You refer to “alcohol fuelled family and domestic violence, child neglect and other behaviours where indigenous people are over-represented”.
    Can I suggest you extend your research into the gross over-representation of Indigenous incarceration?
    Perhaps, you could enquire into whether there is any connection and why?

  23. All I can say if Dennis Brown is not happy, he can move and go elsewhere. I’m sure there are others who would like a nice house.
    What I am concerned about is that the royalty monies are supposed to be spent in the communities for housing and their own welfare not cars.

  24. @ “Heckler” and by default, “Fred”: I thought you might appreciate some information to assist in research regarding your comment on alcohol-fuelled violence and Indigenous over-representation in our prison system.
    In the recent Budget, the NSW Government allocated $2.3m over four years to create a Centre for the Prevention and Harm to Children and Adolescents from Drugs and Alcohol at Westmead Hospital.
    The annual cost of alcohol-related abuse to NSW Government services was estimated to be in excess of $1.029 billion according to the NSW Auditor-General’s Report 2013.
    The NT is not alone in the type of social problems which you appear to infer are exclusively Aboriginal.
    The measures introduced by a Liberal NSW Government seem to have much in common with NT Labor’s recent alcohol-related policy announcements.
    In this respect, I would suggest that the NT Government is recalcitrant.
    We all need to take a tougher stance against the alcohol-industry’s self-regulation, campaign party donations, sponsorship and advertising in an effort to reduce supply so that current and future generations do not become victims of a sinister core culture of drinking to excess.
    The evidence for this is found in your own comments.
    Perhaps, a campaign around the Ben E. King song “Stand By Me” might be an appropriate counter measure, armed with some of the facts.

  25. Reading how Nhulunbuy’s Endeavour Health Services GP clinic last week announced it will close in January.
    Endeavour Health referred to drop in patients, drop in subsidies which support housing for doctors, freezes on Medicare rebates, suspect most likely reason is their to date inability to secure a lease.
    Without reasonable functional leases most businesses have little option but to close.
    Many centralian communities find it difficult to improve their services, create employment, through same lack of reasonable leases.
    Without leases improvements fail.
    Obsessions for ongoing control delay improvements sought.

  26. @ Fred, @ Interested, @ Anotherobserver, @ Heckler:
    Those comments are absolutely foul and I hope that you would be written off if you voiced them in public.
    The problem of Indigenous Australians runs very very deep, the trauma which they where exposed to during colonisation continues in their lives today.
    I might prompt you to think about the sorts of things which you learnt from your parents and how those things shape the person who you are today. Well, trauma can be passed on just the same.
    Not to mention, the racism they experience every day from people who say and write things like you have done here on this forum.
    How can you have such little empathy and intelligence?


Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here